There are among mankind, people who claim knowledge of the unseen and the future. They are known by various names, among them: fortune-teller, soothsayer, foreseer, augur, magician, prognosticator, oracle, astrologer, palmist, etc. Fortune-tellers use various methods and mediums from which they claim to extract their information, among them: reading tea-leaves, drawing lines, writing numbers, palm-reading, casting horoscopes, crystal ball gazing, rattling bones, throwing sticks, etc.
Practitioners of occult arts, which claim to reveal the unseen and predict the future, can be divided into two main categories:
1.Those who have no real knowledge or secrets but depend on telling their customers about general incidences which happen to most people. They often go through a series of meaningless rituals, then make calculatedly general guesses. Some of their guesses, due to their generality, usually come true. Most people tend to remember the few predictions that come true and quickly forget the many which do not. This tendency is a result of the fact that after some time all the predictions tend to become half-forgotten thoughts in the subconscious until something happens to trigger their recall. For example, it has become a common practice in North America to publish, at the beginning of each year the various predictions of famous fortune-tellers. When a survey was taken of the various predictions for the year 1980, it was found that the most accurate fortune-teller among them was only 24% accurate in his/her predictions!
2. The second group are those who have made contact with the Jinn. This group is of most importance because it usually involves the grave sin of Shirck (polytheism), and those involved often tend to be highly accurate in their information and thus present a real Fitnah (temptations) for both Muslims and non-Muslims alike.
WORLD OF THE JINN:
Some people have attempted to deny the reality of the Jinn about whom the Qur’an has devoted a whole chapter, Soorah al-Jinn (72). By relying on the literal meaning of the word Jinn which comes from the verb Janna, Yajunnu: “to cover, hide or conceal”, they claim that the word Jinn really refers to “clever foreigners”. Others have even stated that a Jinni is a human who does not have a true mind in his head but he has a fiery nature. But, the reality is that the Jinn represent another creation of Allaah, which co-exists with man on the earth. Allaah created the Jinn before He created mankind, and He also used a different set of elements than those used for man. Allaah said: “Verily we created man out of clay, from an altered black mud. And we created the Jinn before that from a scorching fire.” (Qur’an 15:26-27)
They were named Jinn because they are hidden from the eyes of mankind. Iblees (Satan) is from the world of the Jinn, even though he was among the angels when they were commanded by Allaah to prostrate to Adam. When he refused to prostrate and was asked why, Allaah said: “He said, ‘I am better than he is. You (Allaah) created me from fire and You created him from clay!” (Qur’an 38:76)
‘Aa’esha reported that the prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The angels were created from light and the Jinn from smokeless fire.” (Sahih Muslim)
Allaah also said, “And when We told the angels to prostrate to Adam, they all prostrated except Iblees. He was of the Jinn.” (Qur’an 18:50)
Therefore it is incorrect to consider him a fallen angel or the like.
The Jinn may first be divided into three broad categories in relation to their modes of existence. The prophet (peace be upon him)said: “There are three types of Jinn: One type which flies in the air all the time, another type which exists as snakes and dogs, and an earthbound type which resides in one place or wanders about.” (At-Tabaree and al-Haakim)
The Jinn may be further divided into two categories in relationship to their faith: Muslims (believers) and Kaafirs (disbelievers). Allaah refers to the believing Jinn in Soorah al-Jinn (72) as follows: “Say: It has been revealed to me that a group of Jinn listened and said, ‘Verily we have heard a marvelous Qur’an. It guides unto righteousness so we have believed in it. And, we will never make partners with our Lord. He, may our Lord’s glory be exalted, has not taken a wife nor a son. What the foolish ones among us used to say about Allaah is a horrible lie.” (Qur’an 72:1-4)
“And there are among us Muslims and others who are unjust. Whoever accepts Islam has sought out the right path. As for those who are unjust, they will be fuel for the Hell fire.” (Qur’an 72:14)
The disbelievers among the Jinn are referred to by various names in both Arabic and English: ‘Ifreet, Shaytaan, Qareen, demons, devils, spirits, ghosts, etc. They try to misguide man in various ways. Whoever listens to them and becomes a worker for them is referred to as human Shaytaan (devil).
Allaah said: “Likewise, we have made for every Prophet an enemy, Shaytaans from among mankind and the Jinn.” (Qur’an 6:112)
Every human has an individual Jinn accompanying him referred to as a Qareen (i.e. companion). This is a part of man’s test in this life. The Jinn encourage his lower desires and constantly try to divert him from righteousness. The prophet (peace be upon him) referred to this relationship as follows, “Everyone of you has been assigned a companion from the Jinn.” The companions asked, “Even you, O Messenger of Allaah?” And the prophet replied, “Even me, except that Allaah has helped me against him and he has submitted. Now he only tells me to do good.” (Muslim)
Prophet Sulaymaan (Solomon) was given miraculous control over the Jinn, as a sign of his prophethood. Allaah said: “And, we gathered for Sulaymaan his army from the Jinn, mankind and the birds, and they were all kept in order and ranks.”
But this power was not given to anyone else. No one else is allowed to control the Jinn and no one can. The prophet said, “Verily an ‘Ifr-eet from among the Jinn spat on me last night trying to break my Prayer. However Allaah let me overpower him and I wanted to tie him to one of the columns in the masjid so that you all could see him in the morning. Then, I remembered my brother Sulaymaan’s prayer: ‘Oh my Lord, forgive me and bestow on me a kingdom not allowed to anyone after me.’ (Qur’an 38:35) (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Man cannot gain control over the Jinn as this was a special miracle given only to prophet Sulaymaan. In fact, contact with the Jinn in circumstances other than possession, or accident is most often made by the performance of sacrilegious acts despised and forbidden in the religion. The evil Jinn summoned in this fashion may aid their partners in sin and disbelief in God. Their goal is to draw as many others as they can into the gravest of sins, the worship of others besides or along with God.
Once contact and contract with the Jinn are made by fortune-tellers, the Jinn may inform them of certain events in the future. The prophet (peace be upon him) described how the Jinn gather information about the future. He related that the Jinn were able to travel to the lower reaches of the heavens and listen in on some of the information about the future, which the angels pass among themselves. They would then return to the earth and feed the information to their human contacts. (Bukhari and Muslim)
This used to happen a lot prior to the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) and fortune-tellers were very accurate in their information. They were able to gain positions in the royal courts and enjoyed much popularity and were even worshipped in some regions of the world.
After the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) began his mission the situation changed. Allaah had the angels guard the lower reaches of the heavens carefully, and most of the Jinn were chased away with meteors and shooting stars. Allaah described this phenomenon in the following Qur’anic statement made by one of the Jinn, “We (the Jinn) had sought out the heavens but found it filled with strong guardians and meteors. We used to sit on high places in order to listen, but whoever listens now finds a flame waiting for him.” (Qur’an 72:9)
Allaah also said, “And We have guarded it (the heavens) from every cursed devil, except the one who is able to snatch a hearing and, he is pursued by a brightly burning flame.” (Qur’an 15:17-18)
Thus, the Jinn could no longer gather information about the future as easily as they could before the prophet’s (peace be upon him) mission. Because of that, they now mix their information with many lies. The prophet (peace be upon him) said: “They (the Jinn) would pass the information back down until it reaches the lips of a magician fortune-teller. Sometimes a meteor would overtake them before they could pass it on. If they passed it on before being struck, they would add to it a hundred lies.” (Al-Bukhari and Tirmidhi)
‘Aa’eshah reported that when she asked Allaah’s messenger (peace be upon him) about fortune-tellers, he replied that they were nothing. She then mentioned that the fortune-tellers sometimes told them things, which were true. The prophet (peace be upon him) said: “That is a bit of truth which the Jinn steals and cackles in the ear of his friend; but he mixes along with it a hundred lies.” (Al-Bukhari, Muslim)
The Jinns are also able to inform their human contact of the relative future. For example, when someone comes to a fortune-teller, the fortune-teller’s Jinn gets information from the man’s Qareen (the jinn assigned to every human being) of what plans he had made prior to his coming. So the fortune-teller is able to tell him that he will do this or that, or go here or there. By this method, the real fortune-teller is also able to learn about a stranger’s past in vivid detail. He is able to tell a total stranger of his parents’ names, where he was born, the acts of his childhood, etc. The ability to vividly describe the past is one of the marks of a true fortune-teller who has made contact with the Jinn. Because the Jinn are able to traverse huge distances instantaneously, they are also able to gather huge stores of information about hidden things, lost articles and unobserved events. Proof of this ability can be found in the Qur’an, in the story about prophet Sulaymaan and Bilqees, the Queen of Sheba. When Queen Bilqees came to see him, he asked the Jinn to bring her throne from her land.
“A powerful one from among the Jinns said, I will bring it for you before you can get up from your place. Verily, I am strong and trustworthy for the assignment.”
THE ISLAMIC RULING ON FORTUNE-TELLING:
Because of the sacrilege, heresy and cheating involved in fortune telling, Islam has taken a very strong stance towards it. Islam opposes any form of association with those who practice fortune-telling, except to advise them to give up their forbidden practices.
VISITATION OF FORTUNE-TELLERS:
The prophet (peace be upon him) laid down principles, which clearly forbade any form of visitation of fortune-tellers. Safiyyah reported from Hafsah (wife of the prophet) that the prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The prayer of whoever approaches a fortune-teller and asks him about anything will not be accepted for 40 days and nights.” (Muslim)
The punishment in this Hadeeth is for simply approaching a fortune-teller and asking him questions out of curiosity. This prohibition is further supported by Mu’aawiyah Ibn al-Hakam’s Hadeeth in which he said, “O Messenger of Allaah, verily there are some people among us who visit oracles. “The prophet (peace be upon him) replied, “Do not go to them”. Such a severe punishment has been assigned for only visitation because it is the first step to belief in fortune-telling. If one went there doubtful about its reality, and some of the fortune-teller’s predictions come true, one will surely become a true devotee of the fortune-teller and an ardent believer in fortune-telling. The individual who approaches a fortune-teller is still obliged to make his compulsory prayer throughout the 40 day period, even though he gets no reward from his prayers. If he abandons the prayer all together, he has committed another major sin. This is similar to the Islamic ruling in the case of prayer on or in stolen property, according to the majority of Jurists. They hold that whenever obligatory prayer is performed, it produces three results under normal circumstances:
1. It removes the obligation of that prayer from the individual.
2. It earns him/her a reward.
3. It keeps him/her remembering Allaah
BELIEF IN FORTUNE-TELLERS:
The Islamic ruling with regard to anyone who visits a fortune-teller believing that he/she knows the unseen and the future is that of Kufr (disbelief). Abu Hurayrah and al-Hasan both reported from the prophet (peace be upon him) that he said, “Whosoever approaches a fortune-teller and believes what he says, has disbelieved in what was revealed to Muhammad.” Such a belief assigns to creation some of Allaah’s attributes with regard to the knowledge of the unseen and the future. Consequently, it destroys Tawheed alAsmaa was-Sifaat, and represents a form of Shirck in this aspect of Tawheed.
The ruling of Kufr (disbelief) includes, by analogy (Qiyaas), those who read the books and writings of fortune-tellers, listen to them on the radio or watch them on the T.V., as, these are the most common means used by 21st century fortune-tellers to spread their predictions.
Allaah clearly states in al-Qur’an that no one knows the unseen besides Him. Not even the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Allaah said: “With Him are the keys to the unseen and none knows it except Him alone.” (Qur’an 6:59)
Allaah told prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), “Say! I have no power to bring good to myself nor avert harm but it is only as Allaah wills. If it were that I knew the unseen, I would have multiplied the good and no evil would have touched me.”
And He also said: “Say! None in the heavens nor the earth knows the ‘unseen except Allaah’.”
Therefore, all the various methods used around the world by oracles, fortune-tellers, and the likes, are forbidden to Muslims. Because Muslims must not believe in myths.
Palm-reading, I-Ching, fortune cookies, tea leaves as well as Zodiacal signs and Bio-rhythm computer programs, all claim to inform those who believe in them about their future. However, Allaah has stated in no uncertain terms that He alone knows the future: “Verily the knowledge of the Hour is with Allaah alone. It is He who sends down the rain and knows the contents of the wombs. No one knows what he will earn tomorrow nor in which land he will die, but Allaah is all-knowing and aware.” (Qur’an 31:34)
Therefore, Muslims must take utmost care in dealing with books, magazines, newspapers as well as individuals who, in one way or another, claim knowledge of the future or the unseen. For example, when a Muslim weather-man predicts rain, snow, or other climatic conditions for tomorrow he should add the phrase, “In ShaaAllaah (If Allaah so wishes)”. Likewise, when the Muslim doctor informs his/her patient that she will deliver a child in 9 months or on such and such a day, she should take care to add the phrase “In ShaaAllaah”, as such statements are only estimations based on statistical information.
Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips
Edited and Revised by
Manager of Editing and Translation
( With the compliments of www.worldreminder.com )
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